Emerging Technologies of the year 2012
- Egg Stem Cells
- Ultra-Efficient Solar
- Light-Field Photography
- Solar Microgrids
- 3-D Transistors
- A Faster Fourier Transform
- Nanopore Sequencing
- High-Speed Materials Discovery
- Facebook’s Timeline
Mathematical upgrade promises a “Faster Digital World”…
In January 2012, four MIT researchers showed a replacement for one of the most important algorithms in computer science. Dina Katabi, Haitham Hassanieh, Piotr Indyk, and Eric Price have created a faster way to perform the Fourier transform, a mathematical technicque used for processing streams of data that underlies the operation of things such as digital medical imaging, Wi-Fi routers, and 4G Cellular Networks.
The principle of the Fourier transform, dates back to the 19th Century, any signal, such as a sound recording, can be represented as the sum of a collection of sine and sound waves with different frequencies and amplitudes. This collection of waves can then manipulate ease. If you have marveled at the size of a MP3 file size compared with same recording in an uncompressed form has seen the power of the (FFT) at work.
Egg Stem Cells - In genetics and developmental biology, somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory technique for creating a clone embryo with a donor nucleus (see process below). It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, or, potentially, in regenerative medicine where it is sometimes referred to as “therapeutic cloning”. It can also be used as the first step in the process of reproductive cloning.
THE PROCESS of Egg Stem Cells
The nucleus of a somatic cell is removed and kept, and the host’s egg cell is kept and nucleus removed and discarded. Now we have a lone nucleus and an empty (or deprogrammed) egg cell. The lone nucleus is then fused with the ‘deprogrammed’ egg cell. After being inserted into the egg, the lone (somatic-cell) nucleus is reprogrammed by the host egg cell. The egg, now containing the somatic cell’s nucleus, is stimulated with a shock and will begin to divide. After many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with almost identical DNA to the original organism. The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg that produced Dolly was an extension of experiments that had been ongoing for over 40 years. In the simplest terms, the technique used to produce Dolly the sheep – somatic-cell nuclear transplantation cloning – involves removing the nucleus of an egg and replacing it with the diploid nucleus of a somatic cell.